#### Table of Contents

#### Introduction

In this blog I answer a question I received about how to apply Nyquist’s sampling rate mathematically and thought it’s worth sharing. One of the difficult parts about getting started in DSP is the concepts are not intuitive which is further compounded by the requirement that the early work must done mathematically, rather than by building or simulating. Take heart if you feel this way, you are not alone! I hope this blog is useful in helping to understand the mathematics of DSP. Please leave a comment below with other questions you have.

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## Homework Question

A continuous-time signal is modulated by a second continuous-time signal such that

(1)

The resulting signal y(t) is sampled with period .

Questions:

For Hz, Hz, and seconds,

- Write y(t) as the sum of two sines or cosines
- Sample the continuous-time signal y(t) to produce the discrete-time signal y[n]
- What is the Nyquist sampling rate needed to sample y(t)?
- What is the sampling frequency being applied to y(t)?
- Is the signal y(t) sampled below or above the Nyquist sampling rate?

#### Question 1: Modulated Sinusoids

A trigonometric identity can be used on the modulated, or multiplied, sinusoids to represent them as the sum of two cosines:

(2)

Substituting and the signal y(t) can be written as

(3)

The multiplication of the two sines of frequency and resulted in the addition of two cosines, with frequency and .

#### Question 2. Sampling a Continuous-Time Signal

#### Question 3: Finding the Nyquist Sampling Rate

Nyquist’s theorem states that to avoid distortion the sampling frequency must be greater than twice the largest frequency of the signal to be sampled, . The sampled signal (4) has two frequencies,

(5)

(6)

The larger of the frequencies is and the minimum sampling frequency needed to sample the signal without distortion is therefore

(7)

#### Question 4: Calculating Sampling Frequency

#### Question 5: Is Nyquist's Sampling Theorem Satisfied?

The sampling rate Hz is the minimum sampling rate needed to sample y(t) without distortion. However, the signal has been sampled by frequency Hz. Since , the signal is undersampled and Nyquist’s sampling theorem is not satisfied.

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