# Wave Walker DSP

## DSP Algorithms for RF Systems

DSP for Beginners: Simple Explanations for Complex Numbers! The second edition includes a new chapter on complex sinusoids.

Complex Frequency Shifting in Discrete Time
January 1, 2023

#### Introduction

Complex frequency shifting is the process of shifting a signal’s frequency response in the frequency domain. This blog describes how to apply complex frequency shifting in the time domain by multiplication with a complex sinusoid.

A previous blog post described complex frequency conversion in continuous time.

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#### Complex Frequency Conversion in the Frequency Domain

Complex frequency shifting, or frequency conversion, shifts the frequency response of a signal in the frequency domain. A discrete-time signal has a frequency response related through the Fourier transform,

(1) Frequency shifting a frequency response by is accomplished by substitutting

(2) such that the frequency response is now

(3) Figure 1 demonstrates how complex frequency shifting by appears in the frequency domain.

Discrete-time is only able to represent frequencies

(4) where is equal to the half sampling rate in radians. Frequency shifting past the half sampling rate can result in aliasing as shown in Figure 2. Figure 2: Complex frequency shifting can result in aliasing if the frequency response overlaps the half sampling rate.

#### Complex Frequency Conversion in the Time Domain

One method of performing frequency shifting is by multiplying the discrete time signal by a complex sinusoid

(5) resulting in

(6) The Fourier transform of (6) is defined by [Oppenheim1999, p.59]

(7) where represents circular convolution. The Fourier transform of (5) is defined as [Oppenheim1999, p.62]

(8) Substituting (8) into (7),

(9) which can be simplified as

(10) from the Dirac delta sifting theorem [Oppenheim1999, p.143].

#### Conclusion

Multiplication of with shifts the frequency response of by , resulting in .

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God, the Lord, is my strength; he makes my feet like the deer’s; he makes me tread on my high places. Habakkuk 3:19

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